As the industry transitions to zero emission shipping, there is a need to better understand the sustainability issues surrounding the marine fuels being explored and to ensure that zero and low carbon fuels do not shift emissions and other externalities up- or downstream along the supply chain.

At the same time, low GHG emissions and carbon intensity only cover a fraction of the sustainability issues across the full well-to-wake lifecycle of a fuel. Environmental considerations, such as air quality and ecological impacts; social considerations, such as social, labour and human rights; and socio-economic considerations, such as economic wellbeing and food security, must be taken into account when determining a fuel’s sustainability.